Climate change adaptation is fundamental to safeguard the climate vulnerable communities and ecosystems. As climate change continued to affect people and resources adversely, Nepal prepared National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) in September 2010 to address such impacts. Nepal also prepared National Framework on Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPA) to implement adaptation actions at the local level and ensure integration of climate change adaptation into local to national planning process. Furthermore, Nepal's Climate Change Policy (2011) ensures allocation of at least 80 percent of the total budget from climate change fund to programme implementation at the community level. The climate change budget code, introduced in 2013, opens avenues to channel climate finance to the field level activities.

The number of climate vulnerable people is increasing over the years due to climate-induced disasters. Several scientific literatures reveals that with the business-as-usual scenario of greenhouse gas emission, the impacts are very likely to couple up in the coming decades. Thus it is of utmost importance to prepare ourselves to medium and long-term impacts by building adaptive capacity, and enhancing resilience to climate change. In addition, as NAPA also addresses only the most urgent and immediate adaptation needs, formulation of plans that addresses the medium and long term adaptation needs has become imperative. Accordingly, Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at its Sixteenth Session (COP 16) decided to formulate and implement National Adaptation Plan (NAP). SAdhering to this decision, Nepal started a process to formulate and implement NAP.